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Version: 1.9.1


The expressions known as pseudo-variables are special read-only variables that are not declared anywhere (at least not in a species), and which represent a value that changes depending on the context of execution.

Table of contents


The pseudo-variable self always holds a reference to the agent executing the current statement.

  • Example (sets the friend attribute of another random agent of the same species to self and conversely):
friend potential_friend <- one_of (species(self) - self);
if potential_friend != nil {
potential_friend.friend <- self;
friend <- potential_friend;


The pseudo-variable super behaves exactly in the same way as self except when calling an action, in which case it represents an indirection to the parent species. It is mainly used for allowing to call inherited actions within redefined ones. For instance:

species parent {

int add(int a, int b) {
return a + b;


species child parent: parent {

int add(int a, int b) {
// Calls the action defined in 'parent' with modified arguments
return super.add(a + 20, b + 20);



myself plays the same role as self but in remotely-executed code (ask, create, capture and release statements), where it represents the calling agent when the code is executed by the remote agent.

  • Example (asks the first agent of my species to set its color to my color):
ask first (species (self)){
color <- myself.color;
  • Example (create 10 new agents of the species of my species, share the energy between them, turn them towards me, and make them move 4 times to get closer to me):
create species (self) number: 10 {
energy <- / 10.0;
loop times: 4 {
heading <- towards (myself);
do move;


each is available only in the right-hand argument of iterators. It is a pseudo-variable that represents, in turn, each of the elements of the left-hand container. It can then take any type depending on the context.

  • Example:
list<string> names <- my_species collect;  // each is of type my_species
int max <- max(['aa', 'bbb', 'cccc'] collect length(each)); // each is of type string